6.7. requests module declaration

Author: Onceday Date: 2022年12月10日

6.7.1. Module basic information

  1. Based on webclient.c development, temporarily support the simplest get request and post request.

  2. Additional support for simple URL concatenation on get requests.

  3. Ability to specify additional request header keywords.

  4. The returned data includes the status code, payload length, and payload content.

6.7.2. install

requestment.txt join


6.7.3. usage

  1. Import module first

    import requests
  2. Then enter the method and url address

    result = requests.request("GET", "http://pikascript.com/")
  3. If everything succeeds, the result will contain the following information

    content_length: int	Returns the length of the text content	
    text: str				The text content returned
    state_code: int		get Indicates the status code of the request	
    headers: str			The response header returned
    url: str				get Indicates the url of the request

    text is the core returned data. For the request in (2), it can be shown as follows:


    So that’s the web page http://pikascript.com/

  4. If this request Failure, result will be an empty object, so you need to determine whether result is empty.

request The available parameters of the module are as follows:

request(method: str, url: str, params=None, headers=None, data=None) -> Response:
  • method, optional GETPOST,The two most basic operations

  • url, that is, the standard url field. Note that the length of the field is limited. It is recommended that the field not exceed 2Kb.

  • params,Optional. Used to concatenate parameters after a given url field. The characters are automatically escaped, or you can concatenate parameters in the url manually.

  • headers,This parameter is optional. The keyword, such asHost , is used to specify the request header. This parameter is optional.

  • data,Load data used to transmit in POST, note that it is of string type.

  • Response,The returned response object is returned only when the response to the sent request is successful. Otherwise, it is None

6.7.4. Concatenate URL

The extra support for the get method is to concatenate urls, which also involves some character conversions. Because there are some special characters in the URL that cannot be displayed directly, they must be escaped. It is simple to use, as follows:

result = requests.request("GET", "http://pikascript.com/package", params = {"name":"get-test", "id":"23"})

The url is concatenated as follows:


Then use this to send an http request. There is no complicated operation here, but simply concatenate the parameters in the dictionary. If the returned data is displayed below, the result will not be empty until the response is successfully received. Therefore, it is necessary to determine:

if result not None:

6.7.5. post port

This interface is primitive, and if you want to upload the data yourself, you need to manually concatenate the content. Here’s why:

  1. The http protocol is very complex and there is no need to implement it again.

  2. Embedded requirements are fixed. Here is a typical use:

import requests
form_data = '------WebKitFormBoundaryrEPACvZYkAbE4bYB\r\nContent-Disposition: form-data; name="file"; filename="test_file.txt"\r\nContent-Type: text/plain\r\n\r\nhello, pikascript!\r\n------WebKitFormBoundaryrEPACvZYkAbE4bYB\r\nContent-Disposition: form-data; name="id"\r\n\r\n1670666272201\r\n------WebKitFormBoundaryrEPACvZYkAbE4bYB\r\nContent-Disposition: form-data; name="uploadFileNum"\r\n\r\n1\r\n------WebKitFormBoundaryrEPACvZYkAbE4bYB--\r\n'

header = {"Content-Type": "multipart/form-data; boundary=----WebKitFormBoundaryrEPACvZYkAbE4bYB"}

a = requests.request("POST", "http://pikascript.com/upload", headers=header, data=form_data)

if a not None:

The normal output is as follows:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
{"files":{"file":[{"fieldName":"file","originalFilename":"test_file.txt","path":"html/upload/pJwNgC8fobWOLN_l9qmAk-Oi.txt","headers":{"content-disposition":"form-data; name=\"file\"; filename=\"test_file.txt\"","content-type":"text/plain"},"size":18}]},"fields":{"id":["1670666272201"],"uploadFileNum":["1"]}}

Here’s an explanation of the above behavior:

  1. First specify additional header keywords, Content-Type indicates the type of load, multipart/form-data is a common form type, and boundary specifies the dividing line between different parts of the form.

    Content-Type:multipart/form-data; boundary=----WebKitFormBoundaryrEPACvZYkAbE4bYB

    ----WebKitFormBoundaryrEPACvZYkAbE4bYB Is used to split the load content, this is simply some random characters, so can be mixed with some identifiers WebKitFormBoundaryr Inside.

You will notice that this separator may duplicate the content of the transmission! Yes, it could be repeated, which would cause the server to fail parsing and then have to pass it again. So it’s a random string every time, and the probability of repeating it many times in a row is very low. The above form data is the encoded string, which contains three kinds of data:

  1. File name, file type, and file content “hello, pikascript!” .

  2. The mapping ID.

  3. Number of uploaded files.

The POST key requires the following two request keywords:

header buffer:POST http://pikascript.com/upload HTTP/1.1
Content-Type:multipart/form-data; boundary=----WebKitFormBoundaryrEPACvZYkAbE4bYB
Content-Length: 408

For a post, the request header is as simple as the above. 3. The return code is 200, indicating that the post request was successful. Of course, the post response also carries some information about the uploaded content.

The most direct post transmission, only need the following call can.

a = requests.request("POST", "http://pikascript.com/upload", data=binary_data)

This transfers binary data, which is populated by default with the following:

Content-Type: application/octet-stream
Content-Length: (sizeof(data))

But this requires server corresponding analytical support, it is obvious that http://pikascript.com/upload cannot parse the data.

6.7.6. Running process

The entire request code was developed based on webclient with simple changes. When the following statement is run, the following process actually takes place:

result = requests.request("GET", "http://pikascript.com/package", params = {"name":"get-test"}, headers = {"Connection":"keep-alive"})
  • First create a session object and apply for a 4Kb buffer to store the request headers.

  • Write ‘GET’ to buffer.

  • write “http://pikascript.com/package” into the buffer,

  • Writes the concatenated part of the url ‘params = {”name”:”get-test”}’ into buffer, then fills in any other characters as necessary.

  • Writes the specified keyword ‘headers = {”Connection”:”keep-alive”}’ to buffer.

  • For POST, additional ‘Content-Type’ and ‘Content-Length’ contents are written.

  • This will start resolving URL addresses, such as domain names to actual IP addresses

  • Write the default standard header section keywords, including

    1. Host: (自行解析)

    2. User-Agent: PikaPython HTTP Agent

    3. Accept: */*

  • Create a socket connection and start communication。 -Send the request header portion before sending the data (for POST). -Then wait to receive data, this time there is a possibility of timeout. -Parses the data, writing content_length, text, header, status_code.

Finally, you can view the above four data through the returned result object.